Posted by Dariusz Dwornikowski on Tue 19 April 2016

HAProxy and 503 HTTP errors with AWS ELB as a backend

Although, AWS provides load balancer service in the form of Elastic Load Balancer (ELB), a common trick is to use HAProxy in the middle to provide SSL offloading, complex routing and better logging.
In this scenario, a public ELB is the frontier of all the traffic, HAProxy farm in the middle is managed by an Auto Scaling Group, and one (or more) internal backend ELBs stay in front of Web farm.


I think that HAProxy does not need any introductions here. It is highly scalable and reliable piece of software. There is however a small caveat when you use it with domain names and not IP addresses. To speed up things, HAProxy resolves all the domain named during startup (during config file parsing in fact). Hence, when the IP of a domain changes, you end up with a lot of 503s (Service Unavailable).

Why is this important ? In AWS, ELB's IP can change over time, so it is recommended to use ELB's domain name. Now, when you use this domain name in HAProxy's backend, you can end up with 503s. ELB IPs do not change so often but still you would not want any downtimes.

The solution is to configure runtime resolvers in HAProxy and use them in the backend (unforntunatelly this works only in HAProxy 1.6):

 resolvers myresolver
      nameserver dns1
      resolve_retries       30
      timeout retry         1s
      hold valid           10s

  backend mybackend
      server check resolvers myresolver

Now HAProxy will check the domain at runtime, no more 503s.

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